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P 144,1 27. See the note on [Greek: Archae] on p. 4,1 30. As a matter of fact and mental experience the Major Premiss of the Practica Syllogism is wrought into the mind by repeatedly acting upon the Minor Premiss (i.e. by [Greek: ethismos]).

  All that is pleasant is to be done,
  This is pleasant,
  This is to be done

By habitually acting on the Minor Premiss, i.e. on the suggestions of [Greek: epithymia], a man comes really to hold the Major Premiss. Aristotle says of the man destitute of all self-control that he is firmly persuaded that it is his proper line to pursue the gratification of his bodily appetites, [Greek: dia to toioytos einai oios diokein aytas]. And his analysis of [Greek: akrasia] (the state of progress towards this utter abandonment to passion) shows that each case of previous good resolution succumbing to temptation is attributable to [Greek: epithymia] suggesting its own Minor Premiss in place of the right one. Book VII. 8 and 5. P. 145, l. 4. The consequentia is this:

There are cases both of principles and facts which cannot admit of reasoning, and must be authoritatively determined by [Greek: nous]. What makes [Greek: nous] to be a true guide? only practice, i.e. Experience, and therefore, etc.

P. 145, l. 22. This is a note to explain [Greek: hygieina] and [Greek: euektika], he gives these three uses of the term [Greek: hygieinon] in the Topics, I. xiii. 10,

  { [Greek: to men hygieias poitikon], [Greek: hygieinon legetai]
  { [Greek: to de phylaktikon],
  { [Greek: to de smantikon].

Of course the same will apply to [Greek: euektikon].

  P. 146, l. 11. Healthiness is the formal cause of health.
  Medicine is the efficient.

See Book X. chap. iv. [Greek: hosper oud h hygieia kai ho iatros homoios aitia esti tou ugiainein].

P. 146, l. 17. [Greek: phronsis] is here used in a partial sense to signify the Intellectual, as distinct from the Moral, element of Practical Wisdom.

P. 146, l. 19. This is another case of an observation being thrown in obiter, not relevant to, but suggested by, the matter in hand.

P. 146, l. 22. See Book II. chap. iii. and V. xiii.

P. 147, l. 6. The article is supplied at [Greek: panourgous], because the abstract word has just been used expressly in a bad sense. “Up to anything” is the nearest equivalent to [Greek: panourgos], but too nearly approaches to a colloquial vulgarism.

P. 147, l. 13. See the note on [Greek: Arch] on page 4, l. 30.

P. 147, l. 14. And for the Minor, of course,

“This particular action is———.”

We may paraphrase [Greek: to telos] by [Greek: ti dei prattein—ti gar dei prattein h m, to telos auts estin] i.e. [Greek: ts phronseos].—(Chap. xi. of this Book.)

P. 147, l. 19. “Look asquint on the face of truth.” Sir T. Browne, Religio Medici.

P. 147, l. 26. The term [Greek: sophronikoi] must be understood as governing the signification of the other two terms, there being no single Greek term to denote in either case mere dispositions towards these Virtues.

P. 147, l. 30. Compare the passage at the commencement of Book X. [Greek: nun de phainontai] [Greek: katokochimon ek ts arets].

P. 148, l. 10. It must be remembered, that [Greek: phronsis] is used throughout this chapter in two senses, its proper and complete sense of Practical Wisdom, and its incomplete one of merely the Intellectual Element of it. P. 152, 1. 1. The account of Virtue and Vice hitherto given represents rather what men may be than what they are. In this book we take a practical view of Virtue and Vice, in their ordinary, every day development.

P. 152, 1. 17. This illustrates the expression, “Deceits of the Flesh.”

P. 156, 1. 12. Another reading omits the [Greek:——]; the meaning of the whole passage would be exactly the same—it would then run, “if he had been convinced of the rightness of what he does, i.e. if he were now acting on conviction, he might stop in his course on a change of conviction.”

P. 158, 1. 4. Major and minor Premises of the [Greek:——] [Greek——]

P. 158, 1. 8. Some necessarily implying knowledge of the particular, others not.

P 158, 1. 31. As a modern parallel, take old Trumbull in Scott’s “Red Gauntlet.”

P. 159, 1. 23. That is, as I understand it, either the major or the minor premise, it is true, that “all that is sweet is pleasant,” it is true also, that “this is sweet,” what is contrary to Right Reason is the bringing in this minor to the major i.e. the universal maxim, forbidding to taste. Thus, a man goes to a convivial meeting with the maxim in his mind “All excess is to be avoided,” at a certain time his [Greek:——] tells him “This glass is excess.” As a matter of mere reasoning, he cannot help receiving the conclusion “This glass is to be avoided,” and supposing him to be morally sound he would accordingly abstain. But [Greek:——], being a simple tendency towards indulgence suggests, in place of the minor premise “This is excess,” its own premise “This is sweet,” this again suggests the self-indulgent maxim or principle (‘[Greek:——]), “All that is sweet is to be tasted,” and so, by strict logical sequence, proves “This glass is to be tasted.”

The solution then of the phnomenon of [Greek:——] is this that [Greek:——], by its direct action on the animal nature, swamps the suggestions of Right Reason.

On the high ground of Universals, [Greek:——] i.e. [Greek:——] easily defeats [Greek:——]. The [Greek:——], an hour before he is in temptation, would never deliberately prefer the maxim “All that is sweet is to be tasted” to “All excess is to be avoided.” The [Greek:——] would.

  Horace has a good comment upon this (II Sat 2):

    Qu virtus et quanta, bom, sit vivere parvo
    Discite, non inter lances mensasque nitentes
    Verum hic impransi mecum disquirite

Compare also Proverbs XXIII. 31. “Look not thou upon the wine when it is red,” etc. P. 160, l. 2. [Greek: oron]. Aristotle’s own account of this word (Prior Analyt ii. 1) is [Greek: eis on dialuetai hae protasis], but both in the account of [Greek: nous] and here it seems that the proposition itself is really indicated by it.

P. 161, l. 16. The Greek would give “avoids excessive pain,” but this is not true, for the excess of pain would be ground for excuse the warrant for translating as in the text, is the passage occurring just below [Greek: diokei tas uperbolas kai pheugei metrias lupas].

P. 162, l. 11. Compare Bishop Butler on Particular Propensions, Analogy, Part I chap v sect. iv.

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