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  Act of the city, what, 69

  Actions, their original spring, i

  Administration, 76;
      whether to be shared by the whole community, 203

  AEsumnetes, 96

  AEthiopia, in what manner the power of the state is there regulated, 112

  Alterations in government, whence they arise, 142;
      what they are, 143

  Ambractia, the government of, changed, 151

  Andromadas Reginus, a lawgiver to the Thracian Calcidians, 65

  Animals, their different provisions by nature, 14;
      intended by nature for the benefit of man, 14;
      what constitutes their different species, 113

  Animals, tame, why better than wild, 8

  Arbitrator and judge, their difference, 49

  Architas his rattle, 248

  Areopagus, senate of, 63

  Argonauts refuse to take Hercules with them, 93

  Aristocracies, causes of commotions in them, 157;
      chief cause of their alteration, 158;
      may degenerate into an oligarchy, 79

  Aristocracy, what, 78;
      treated of, 120;
      its object, 121

  Art, works of, which most excellent, 20

  Artificers and slaves, their difference, 24

  Assemblies, public, advantageous to a democracy, 134

  Assembly, public, its proper business, 133

  Athens, different dispositions of the citizens of, 149

  Barter, its original, 15

  Being, what the nature of every one is, 3

  Beings, why some command, others obey, 2

  Body by nature to be governed, 8;
      requires our care before the soul, 232

  Calchis, the government of, changed, 151

  Calcidians, 65

  Carthaginian government described, 60

  Census in a free state should be as extensive as possible, 131;
      how to be altered, 162

  Charondas supposed to be the scholar of Zaleucus, 64

  Child, how to be managed when first born, 235;
      should be taught nothing till he is five years old, 235;
      how then to be educated, 236

  Children, the proper government of, 22;
      what their proper virtues, 23;
      what they are usually taught, 240

  Cities, how governed at first, 3;
      what, 3;
      the work of nature, 3;
      prior in contemplation to a family, or an individual, 4

  Citizen, who is one? 66, 68;
      should know both how to command and obey, 73

  Citizens must have some things in common, 26;
      should be exempted from servile labour, 51;
      privileges different in different governments, 68;
      if illegally made, whether illegal, 69;
      who admitted to be, 75;
      in the best states ought not to follow merchandise, 216

  City, may be too much one, 27, 35;
      what, 66, 82;
      when it continues the same, 70;
      for whose sake established, 76;
      its end, 83;
      of what parts made up, 113;
      best composed of equals, 126

  City of the best form, what its establishment ought to be, 149;
      wherein its greatness consists, 149;
      may be either too large or too small, 209;
      what should be its situation, 211;
      whether proper near the sea, 211;
      ought to be divided by families into different sorts of men, 218

  City and confederacy, their difference, 37;
      wherein it should be one, 27

  Command amongst equals should be in rotation, 101

  Common meals not well established at Lacedaemon-well at Crete, 56;
      the model from whence the Lacedaemonian was taken, 56;
      inferior to it in some respects, 56

  Community, its recommendations deceitful, 34;
      into what people it may be divided, 194

  Community of children, 29, 30;
      inconveniences attending it, 31

  Community of goods, its inconveniences, 28;
      destructive of modesty and liberality, 34

  Community of wives, its inconveniences, 27

  Contempt a cause of sedition, 146

  Courage of a man different from a woman's, 74

  Courts, how many there ought to be, 140

  Courts of justice should be few in a small state, 192

  Cretan customs similar to the Lacedasmonian, 57;
      assembly open to every citizen, 58

  Cretans, their power, 58;
      their public meals, how conducted 58

  Crete, the government of, 57;
      description of the island of 57

  Customs at Carthage, Lacedaemon, and amongst the Scythians and
  Iberians, concerning those who had killed an enemy, 204, 205

  Dadalus's statues, 6.

  Delphos, an account of a sedition there, 150

  Demagogues, their influence in a democracy, 116.

  Democracies, arose out of tyrannies, 100;
      whence they arose, 142;
      when changed into tyrannies, 153;
      their different sorts, 184, 188;
      general rules for their establishment, 185;
      should not be made too perfect, 191

  Democracy, what, 79, 80;
      its definition, 112, 113;
      different sorts of, 115, 118;
      its object, 122;
      how subverted in the Isle of Cos, 152

  Democracy and aristocracy, how they may be blended together, 163

  Democratical state, its foundation, 184

  Despotic power absurd, 205

  Dion, his noble resolution, 171

  Dionysius, his taxes, 175

  Dissolution of kingdoms and tyrannies, 169

  Domestic employments of men and women different, 74

  Domestic government, its object, 77

  Domestic society the first, 3

  Draco, 65

  Dyrrachium, government of, 101

  Economy and money-getting, difference, 17

  Education necessary for the happiness of the city, 90;
      of all things most necessary to preserve the state, 166;
      what it ought to be, 166;
      the objects of it, 228, 229;
      should be taken care of by the magistrate, and correspond to
          the nature of government, 238;
      should be a common care, and regulated by laws, 238

  Employment, one to be allotted to one person in an extensive government, 136

  Employments in the state, how to be disposed of, 88-90;
      whether all should be open to all, 216

  Ephialtes abridges the power of the senate of Areopagus, 63

  Ephori, at Sparta, their power too great, 54;
      improperly chosen, 54;
      flattered by their kings, 54;
      the supreme judges, 55;
      manner of life too indulgent, 55

  Epidamnus, an account of a revolution there, 150

  Equality, how twofold, 143;
      in a democracy, how to be procured, 186

  Euripides quoted, 72

  Family government, of what it consists, 5

  Father should not be too young, 232

  Females and slaves, wherein they differ, 2;
      why upon a level amongst barbarians, 3

  Forfeitures, how to be applied, 192

  Fortune improper pretension for power, 91

  Freemen in general, what power they ought to have, 86

  Free state treated of, 121;
      how it arises out of a democracy and oligarchy, 122, 123

  Friendship weakened by a community of children, 31

  General, the office of, how to be disposed of, 98

  Gods, why supposed subject to kingly government, 3

  Good, relative to man, how divided, 201

  Good and evil, the perception of, necessary to form a family and a city, 4

  Good fortune something different from happiness, 202

  Government should continue as much as possible in the same hands, 28;
      in what manner it should be in rotation, 28;
      what, 66;
      which best, of a good man or good laws, 98;
      good, to what it should owe its preservation, 124;
      what the best, 225

  Government of the master over the slave sometimes reciprocally useful, ii

  Governments, how different from each other, 67;
      whether more than one form should be established, 76;
      should endeavour to prevent others from being too powerful—
      instances of it, 93;
      how compared to music, in;
      in general, to what they owe their preservation, 160

  Governments, political, regal, family, and servile, their difference
  from each other, i

  Governors and governed, whether their virtues are the same or different, 23;
      whether they should be the same persons or different, 227

  Grecians, their superiority over other people, 213

  Guards of a king natives, 96,168;
      of a tyrant foreigners, 96, 168

  Gymnastic exercises, when to be performed, 223;
      how far they should be made a part of education, 242, 243

  Happiness, wherein it consists, 207

  Happy life, where most likely to be found, 202

  Harmony, whether all kinds of it are to be used in education, 251

  Helots troublesome to the Lacedaemonians, 87

  Herdsmen compose the second-best democracy, 189

  Hippodamus, an account of, 46;
      his plan of government, 46, 47:
      objected to, 47, 48

  Homer quoted, 95, 116

  Honours, an inequality of, occasions seditions, 44

  Horse most suitable to an oligarchy, 195

  Houses, private, their best form, 221

  Human flesh devoured by some nations, 242

  Husbandmen compose the best democracy, 189;
      will choose to govern according to law, 118

  Husbandry, art of, whether part of money-getting, 13

  Instruments, their difference from each other, 6;
      wherein they differ from possessions, 6

  Italy, its ancient boundary, 218

  Jason's declaration, 72

  Judge should not act as an arbitrator, 48, 49;
      which is best for an individual, or the people in general, 98, 99

  Judges, many better than one, 102;
      of whom to consist, 102;
      how many different sorts are necessary, 141

  Judicial part of government, how to be divided, 140

  Jurymen, particular powers sometimes appointed to that office, 68

  Justice, what, 88;
      the course of, impeded in Crete, 59;
      different in different situations, 74

  King, from whom to be chosen 60;
      the guardian of his people 168

  King's children, what to be done with, 100

  King's power, what it should be 100;
      when unequal, 143

  Kingdom, what, 78

  Kingdoms, their object, 167;
      how bestowed, 168;
      causes of their dissolution, 173;
      how preserved, 173

  Kingly government in the heroic times, what, 96

  Kingly power regulated by the laws at Sparta in peace, 95;
      absolute in war, 95

  Kings formerly in Crete, 58;
      their power afterwards devolved to the kosmoi, 58;
      method of electing them at Carthage, 60

  Knowledge of the master and slave different from each other, ii

  Kosmoi, the power of, 58;
      their number, 58;
      wherein inferior to the ephori, 58;
      allowed to resign their office before their time is elapsed, 59

  Lacedamonian customs similar to the Cretan, 57

  Lacedaemonian government much esteemed, 41;
      the faults of it, 53-56;
      calculated only for war, 56;
      how composed of a democracy and oligarchy, 124

  Lacedaemonian revenue badly raised, 56, 57

  Lacedaemonians, wherein they admit things to be common, 33

  Land should be divided into two parts, 219

  Law makes one man a slave, another free, 6;
      whether just or not, 9;
      at Thebes respecting tradesmen, 75;
      nothing should be done contrary to it, 160

  Law and government, their difference, 107, 108

  Laws, when advantageous
  to alter them, 49,50, 52;
      of every state will be like the state, 88;
      whom they should be calculated for, 92;
      decide better than men, 101;
      moral preferable to written, 102;
      must sometimes bend to ancient customs, 117;
      should be framed to the state, 107;
      the same suit not all governments, 108

  Legislator ought to know not only what is best, but what is practical, n

  Legislators should fix a proper medium in property, 46

  Liberty, wherein it partly consists, 184, 185

  Life, happy, owing to a course of virtue, 125;
      how divided, 228

  Locrians forbid men to sell their property, 43

  Lycophron's account of law, 82

  Lycurgus gave over reducing the women to obedience, 53;
      made it infamous for any one to sell his possessions, 53;
      some of his laws censured, 54;
      spent much time at Crete, 57;
      supposed to be the scholar of Thales, 64

  Lysander wanted to abolish the kingly power in Sparta, 143

  Magistrate, to whom that name is properly given, 136

  Magistrates, when they make the state incline to an oligarchy, 61;
      when to an aristocracy, 61;
      at Athens, from whom to be chosen, 64;
      to determine those causes which the law cannot be applied to, 88;
      whether their power is to be the same, or different
          in different communities, 137;
      how they differ from each other, 138;
          in those who appoint them, 138;
      should be continued but a short time in democracies, 161;
      how to be chosen in a democracy, 185;
      different sorts and employments, 196

  Making and using, their difference, 6

  Malienses, their form of government, 131

  Man proved to be a political animal, 4;
      has alone a perception of good and evil, 4;
      without law and justice the worst of beings, 5

  Master, power of, whence it arises, as some think, 5

  Matrimony, when to be engaged in, 232

  Meals, common, established in Crete and Italy, 218;
      expense of, should be defrayed by the whole state, 219

  Mechanic employments useful for citizens, 73

  Mechanics, whether they should be allowed to be citizens, 74, 75;
      cannot acquire the practice of virtue, 75;
      admitted to be citizens in an oligarchy, 75

  Medium of circumstances best, 126

  Members of the community, their different pretences to the employments
  of the state, 90;
      what natural dispositions they ought to be of, 213

  Men, some distinguished by nature for governors, others to be governed, 7;
      their different modes of living, 13;
      worthy three ways, 226

  Merchandise, three different ways of carrying it on, 20

  Middle rank of men make the best citizens, 127;
      most conducive to the preservation of the state, 128;
      should be particularly attended to by the legislators, 130

  Military, how divided, 194

  Mitylene, an account of a dispute there, 150

  Monarch, absolute, 100

  Monarchies, their nature, 95, 96;
      sometimes elective, 95;
      sometimes hereditary, 95;
      whence they sometimes arise, 146;
      causes of corruption in them, 167;
      how preserved, 173

  Money, how it made its way into commerce, 16;
      first weighed, 16;
      afterwards stamped, 16;
      its value dependent on agreement, 16;
      how gained by exchange, 19

  Money—getting considered at large, 17, 18

  Monopolising gainful, 21; sometimes practised by cities, 21

  Monopoly of iron in Sicily, a remarkable instance of the profit of it, 21

  Music, how many species of it, in;
      why a part of education, 240;
      how far it should be taught, 242, 243;
      professors of it considered as mean people, 244;
      imitates the disposition of the mind, 246;
      improves our manners, 246;
      Lydian, softens the mind, 247;
      pieces of, difficult in their execution, not to be taught to children, 249

  Nature requires equality amongst equals, 101

  Naval power should be regulated by the strength of the city, 212

  Necessary parts of a city, what, 215

  Nobles, the difference between them, no;
      should take care of the poor, 193

  Oath, an improper one in an oligarchy, 166

  Officers of state, who they ought to be, 135;
      how long to continue, 135;
      who to choose them, 136

  Offices, distinction between them, 67;
      when subversive of the rights of the people, 130

  Offspring, an instance of the likeness of, to the sire, 30

  Oligarchies arise where the strength of the state consists in horse, no;
      whence they arose, 142

  Oligarchy admits not hired servants to be citizens, 75;
      its object, 79;
      what, 79, 81;
      its definition, 112;
      different sorts of, 117, 119;
      its object, 122;
      how it ought to be founded, 195

  Onomacritus supposed to have drawn up laws, 64

  Ostracism, why established, 93, 146;
      its power, 93;
      a weapon in the hand of sedition, 94

  Painting, why it should be made a part of education, 241

  Particulars, five, in which the rights of the people will be undermined, 130

  Pausanias wanted to abolish the ephori, 143

  People, how they should be made one, 35;
      of Athens assume upon their victory over the Medes, 64;
      what best to submit to a kingly government, 104;
      to an aristocratic, 104;
      to a free state, 104;
      should be allowed the power of pardoning, not of condemning, 135

  Periander's advice to Thrasy-bulus, 93, 169

  Pericles introduces the paying of those who attended the court of justice, 64

  Philolaus, a Theban legislator, quits his native country, 64

  Phocea, an account of a dispute there, 150

  Physician, his business, 86

  Physicians, their mode of practice in Egypt, 98;
      when ill consult others, 102

  Pittacus, 65

  Plato censured, 180

  Poor excused from bearing arms and from gymnastic exercises in
  an oligarchy, 131;
      paid for attending the public assemblies in a democracy, 131

  Power of the master, its object, 77

  Power, supreme, where it ought to be lodged, 84;
      why with the many, 85, 87

  Powers of a state, different methods of delegating them to the citizens,

  Preadvisers, court of, 135

  Priesthood, to whom to be allotted, 217

  Prisoners of war, whether they may be justly made slaves, 9

  Private property not regulated the source of sedition, 42;
      Phaleas would have it equal, 42;
      how Phaleas would correct the irregularities of it, 43;
      Plato would allow a certain difference in it, 43

  Property, its nature, 12;
      how it should be regulated, 32, 33;
      the advantages of having it private, 34;
      what quantity the public ought to have, 44;
      ought not to be common, 219

  Public assemblies, when subversive of the liberties of the people, 130

  Public money, how to be divided, 193

  Qualifications necessary for those who are to fill the first departments
  in government, 164

  Quality of a city, what meant by it, 129

  Quantity, 129

  Rest and peace the proper objects of the legislator, 230

  Revolutions in a democracy, whence they arise, 152;
      in an oligarchy, 156

  Rich fined in an oligarchy for not bearing arms and attending the
  gymnastic exercises, 131;
      receive nothing for attending the public assemblies in a democracy, 131

  Rights of a citizen, whether advantageous or not, 203

  Seditions sometimes prevented by equality, 45;
      their causes, 144-146;
      how to be prevented, 163

  Senate suits a democracy, 185

  Shepherds compose the second-best democracy, 189

  Slave, his nature and use, 6;
      a chattel, 7;
      by law, how, 9

  Slavery not founded in nature but law, as some think, 6

  Slaves, an inquiry into the virtues they are capable of, 23;
      difficult to manage properly, 51;
      their different sorts, 73

  Society necessary to man, 77

  Society, civil, the greatest blessing to man, 4;
      different from a commercial intercourse, 82

  Socrates, his mistakes on government, Book II. passim;
      his division of the inhabitants, 38;
      would have the women go to war, 38;
      Aristotle's opinion of his discourses, 38;
      his city would require a country of immeasurable extent, 39;
      his comparison of the human species to different kinds of metals, 40;
      his account of the different orders of men in a city imperfect, 3

  Sojourners, their situation, 66

  Solon's opinion of riches, 14;
      law for restraining property, 43;
      alters the Athenian government, 63

  Soul by nature the governor over the body, and in what manner, 8;
      of man how divided, 228, 231

  Speech a proof that man was formed for society, 4

  State, each, consists of a great number of parts, 109;
      its disproportionate increase the cause of revolutions, 147;
      firm, what, 159

  Stealing, how to be prevented, 44

  Submission to government, when it is slavery, 206

  Supreme power should be ultimately vested in the laws, 101

  Syracuse, the government of, languid, 151

  Temperance in a man different from a woman, 74

  Temples, how to be built, 223

  Thales, his contrivance to get money, 21;
      supposed to be the companion of Onomacritus, 64

  Things necessary to be known for the management of domestic affairs, 19, 20;
      necessary in the position of a city, 220

  Tribunals, what different things they should have under their
  jurisdictions, 137

  Tyrannies, how established, 168;
      how preserved, 174, 176;
      of short duration, 180;
      instances thereof, 180

  Tyranny, what, 79;
      not natural, 103;
      whence it arises, 108;
      treated of, 124;
      contains all that is bad in all governments, 125

  Tyrant, from whom usually chosen, 167;
      his object, 168;
      his guards, 168

  Tyrants, many of them originally enjoyed only kingly power, 168;
      the causes of their being conspired against, 169, 170;
      always love the worst of men, 175

  Uses of possessions, two, 15

  Usury detested, 19

  Venality to be guarded against, IDS

  Village, what, 3

  Virtue of a citizen has reference to the state, 71;
      different in different governments, 71

  Virtues different in different persons, 23, 24;
      whether the same constitute a good man and a valuable citizen, 71

  Walls necessary for a city, 222

  War, what is gained by it in some degree a natural acquisition, 14;
      not a final end, 205, 229

  Wife, the proper government of, 22

  Women, what their proper virtue, 23;
      not to be indulged in improper liberties, 52;
      had great influence at Lacedaemon, 52;
      of great disservice to the Lacedemonians, 52;
      why indulged by them, 53;
      their proper time of marrying, 233;
      how to be managed when with child, 234

  Zaleucus, legislator of the Western Locrians, 64;
      supposed to be the scholar of Thales, 64

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