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Arthur Schopenhauer was a German philosopher known for his atheistic pessimism and philosophical clarity. At age 25, he published his doctoral dissertation, *On the Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason*, which examined the fundamental question of whether reason alone can unlock answers about the world.Schopenhauer's most influential work, *The World as Will and Representation*, emphasized the role of man's basic motivation, which Schopenhauer called will. His analysis of will led him to the conclusion that emotional, physical, and sexual desires can never be fulfilled. Consequently, he favored a lifestyle of negating human desires, similar to the teachings of ancient Greek Stoic philosophers, Buddhism, and Vedanta.