Aristotle's History of Animals

Page 13 of 14

[1] Beaver, Castor fiber.

[2] Medusa, or perhaps Actinia, or both.

[3] Under the class are probably included all annulose animals.

[4] Some words appear to be lost in this place.

[5] Tabanus, gad-fly.

[6] Perhaps some species of Zoophyte.

[7] Cephalopods.

[8] Perhaps Sand martin.

[9] Swift.

[10] Some migratory fish.

[11] A kind of tunny, still called palamyde at Marseilles.

[12] A kind of tunny, Les Bonitons (Camus.)

[13] The words in brackets should probably be excluded from the text.

[14] Fibres and serum, as compared with veins and blood, refer to the circulation in animals without red blood.

[15] Palinurus, Spiny Lobster.

[16] Cartilaginous fishes.

[17] Squalus galeus.

[18] Raia batos.

[19] Sparus auratus.

[20] Perca labrax.

[21] Lophius piscatorius and also L. barbatus.

[22] Silurus glanis, L. (Strack).

[23] Probably some kind of flying squirrel.

[24] Herodotus, ii. 76; "the form of this serpent is similar to that of the water-snake; its wings are not feathered, but like those of bats:" the draco volans may have given rise to this story.

[25] The Echinid.

[26] Animals with long hair on their tails.

[27] Ginnus is the offspring of a mule and mare. Book vi. 24, 1.

[28] Hemionus, perhaps the foal of a horse and wild ass, and so distinct from oreus, the foal of the he-ass and mare.

[29] This mistake is again repeated in Ch. xiii.

[30] Eustachian tube.

[31] Perhaps Nylghau (Liddel and Scott's Lexicon), or some large kind of Stag.

[32] Cameleopard. (Schneider.)

[33] Gazelle or antelope, so named from the brightness of its eyes.

[34] Antelope Oryx.

[35] Coa, the highest throw with the Astragalus with the convex side uppermost, opposed to Chia, the lowest throw, sixes and aces.

[36] Simia rostrata, or perhaps baboon. (The identifications of the animals, unless otherwise noted, are taken from the German translation by Strack, 1816.)

[37] Jynx torquilla, wry-neck.

[38] Fringilla, finch.

[39] Perhaps Corvus galgulus.

[40] Mugil, mullet.

[41] Murna anguilla.

[42] Perhaps Cepola tnia.

[43] Raia torpedo.

[44] Raia batos.

[45] The shark tribe.

[46] Lophius piscatorius.

[47] Perhaps Cottus cataphractus.

[48] Murna conger.

[49] Scarus cretensis.

[50] Swordfish or sturgeon (L. and S. Lexicon), or Centriscus scolopax.

[51] A variegated fish.

[52] Perca fluviatilis.

[53] Silurus glanis.

[54] Cyprinus carpis, Carp.

[55] Xiphias gladius, Swordfish.

[56] Nereis, or aphrodite.

[57] Echeneis remora.

[58] Falco milvus.

[59] Falco palurabarius.

[60] Stryx otus.

[61] Testudo coriacea.

[62] Cervus elaphus.

[63] Cervus capreolus, or C. Dama.

[64] Possibly stras nasalis.

[65] Squalus squatina.

[66] Raia batos.

[67] Syngnathus acus.

[68] Squalus zygna.

[69] Uranoscopus scaber.

[70] A kind of marked scomber, mackerel?

[71] Bos grunniens.

[72] Felis onza, perhaps also canis aureus.

[73] Crocodilus niloticus and Lacerta stellio.

[74] Gobio, gudgeon.

[75] Shark.

[76] Cottus scorpius.

[77] Probably Pleuronectes rhombus.

[78] Mullus surmulentus.

[79] Sparus maina.

[80] Theutis hepatus.

[81] Probably Gobio gozo.

[82] Sparus aurata.

[83] Three kinds of birds are called by this name. Corvus graculus, C. monedula, and Pelicanus graculus.

[84] Falco tinnunculus.

[85] Fulica porphyrion.

[86] Ardea nycticorax.

[87] Some kind of heron.

[88] Some kind of owl.

[89] Syennesis, a physician of Cyprus. Very little is known of him; he must have lived in or before the fourth century B.C.

[90] Diogenes of Apollonia was an eminent natural philosopher of Crete, in the fifth century B.C. He wrote a work, , in which he treated of natural philosophy in the widest sense of the words: a few fragments are still extant, of which this quoted by Aristotle is the longest.

[91] Polybus, a pupil of Hippocrates, a native of the island of Cos; he lived in the fourth century B.C. Many treatises on medical subjects are attributed to him.

[92] Iliad. xiii. 546.

[93] Cervis Capreolus, or C. dama.

[94] Antilope gnou.

[95] Balna Mysticetus.

[96] Varicose veins.

[97] Some kind of domestic goat, but not known.

[98] Herodotus, iii. c. 97, 101.

[99] The Cephalopoda.

[100] Sepia officinalis.

[101] Loligo vulgaris (Owen).

[102] Loligo media (Owen).

[103] Sepia octopodia.

[104] Khler supposes the part called by Aristotle mytis to have been the glandular appendages on the vena cava and two visceral veins. (Owen in Todd's Cyclopedia of Anatomy, Art. Cephalopoda.)

[105] Probably the branchia.

[106] Eledone moschata.—Leach. (Owen.)

[107] Eledone cirrosa.—Leach. (Owen.)

[108] Argonauta argo. (Owen.)

[109] This is probably the meaning of the passage. Two kinds of pectens were distinguished; the one large, hollow, and of a dark colour, the other broad and sweeter, but harsh.

[110] Nautilus Pompilius (Owen.)

[111] Palinurus, spiny lobster (Bell's crustacea).

[112] Lobster.

[113] Prawns.

[114] Crabs.

[115] Shrimp.

[116] Perhaps Prawn.

[117] Perhaps Maia squinado.

[118] Cancer paguras, Great crab.

[119] Perhaps the liver.

[120] Land snails.

[121] Marine.

[122] Bivalves.

[123] Some small land snail with a conical shell.

[124] Purpura.

[125] Whelk.

[126] Patella, limpet.

[127] Ascidians.

[128] Chama, L.

[129] Ostrea edulis.

[130] The so-called liver (Strack). Papaver (Scaliger).

[131] Hermit crab.

[132] Cancer Diogenes.

[133] Echinus esculentus.

[134] Ascidian mollusks.

[135] Actini.

[136] Wild bee.

[137] Chafer.

[138] Beetle.

[139] Phalangium Cancroides. Linn. Schneider.

[140] Butterfly.

[141] Locust.

[142] Perhaps Pennatula.

[143] Perhaps Cottus gobio L., miller's thumb. Salmo Fario (Strack).

[144] Mullet.

[145] Unknown.

[146] Perca Labrax.

[147] Scomber.

[148] Unknown.

[149] A fish living in shoals.

[150] Perhaps some species of ant.

[151] Trigla Lyra.

[152] Cottus cataphractus.

[153] Zeus faber.

[154] Trigla hirundo.

[155] Flying fish.

[156] Pleuronectes Lingua and Rhombus.

[157] Perca marina, or Sparus erithrinus.

[158] Aranca tarantula.

[159] Lacerta Gekko.

[160] A beetle living at the roots of trees, Carabus.

[161] Clupea Sprottus.

[162] Coryphna hippurus.

[163] This probably means "to such a size as might be expected from the early age of the parent."

[164] Evidently a corrupt reading.

[165] Star-fish.

[166] Actinia.

[167] Perhaps, Cancer spinosissimus.

[168] Cantharus tinctorius, a plant of the thistle kind. L. and S.

[169] The larva of some species.

[170] Some species of larva.

[171] Geometra.

[172] Ticks. Acarus ricinus.

[173] Vetches, leguminous plants.

[174] Chrysomela oleracea.

[175] Perhaps the dog rose, or sweet briar.

[176] Honeysuckle.

[177] Reed.

[178] Hornet, Apis terrestris.

[179] Apis cementaria.

[180] Cinex lectularius.

[181] Perhaps Acarus Scabiei, Itch insect.

[182] Perhaps Oniscus Ceti, or Isora.

[183] Perhaps Lerna branchialis.

[184] Tinea pellionella, or T. sarcitella.

[185] Dumestes Pellio, and D. lardarius.

[186] Phalangium cancroides.

[187] Tinea graminella, Tinea lichenella, Tinea Xylophorus, or perhaps larva of Phryganea.

[188] Cynips Psenes.

[189] Falco tinnunculus.

[190] Tetrao tetrix or Otis tetrix.

[191] Merops apiaster.

[192] Turdus, thrush.

[193] Cuculus canorus.

[194] Numida Meleagris.

[195] Phasianus colchicus.

[196] nas tadorna.

[197] Eggs formed without sexual intercourse.

[198] Vultur cinereus, ossifragus, osprey.

[199] Kite.

[200] Hawk.

[201] Sylvia curucca, hedge sparrow.

[202] Dog-fish. Squalus stellaris.

[203] Squalus Acanthias.

[204] Perhaps the Sea-bream, Sparus.

[205] Perhaps Perca marina.

[206] Cyprinus Phoxinus.

[207] Mugil. Some species of mullet.

[208] Lacerta apus.

[209] Sardine.

[210] Atherine epsetos.

[211] Melanurus juvenculus.

[212] (Or perhaps) after parturition the discharge becomes thinner in consistence.

[213] Perhaps ferret, Mustela varo, or weasel.

[214] Serboa, Dipus gerbillus, or D. jaculus.

[215] The seventh book ends very abruptly, and hence it has been thought that what is now called the tenth book, in which the subject of reproduction is continued, would have its proper place here, as a continuation of the seventh. Whether a portion of the genuine work of Aristotle has been lost which would have completed the subject is another question; but there can be little doubt that the tenth book, in the form in which we have it, is no genuine work of Aristotle; some of the opinions are contrary to those which he has expressed, and the whole style and language is different from that of Aristotle. Schneider therefore has placed the tenth book at the end of the work, that he may neither entirely exclude that which in former times was considered a portion of Aristotle's treatise on Animals, nor yet allow a fictitious book to interrupt the genuine writings of his Author.

[216] Different species of pigeons and doves.

[217] , Turdus merula, Strack, blackbird, but probably more than one kind of bird is included under the same name. Compare 9, 36, 2.

[218] The passage is altogether corrupt.

[219] Indigestion caused by eating barley when heated.

[220] Phrensy.

[221] Red sulphuret of arsenic.

[222] Probably assaftida.

[223] To fight with each other.—See Liddell and Scott's Lexicon, s. v. .

[224] A bracket, or two year old stag.

[225] Perhaps Aconite.

[226] Spax lacerticida.—Schneider.

[227] Probably a Zoophyte, Alcyonia.

[228] This should probably be read "the bees only cease from their work for forty days during the winter solstice."

[229] A corrupt passage.

[230] To the end of this Essay are appended fragments of Archestratus, on the fishes of Sicily, amounting to 270 lines of heroic verse, together with notes, by the author of the Essay.

[231] Accidentally omitted in a list of birds in the translation.

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